Development of model fermented fish sausage from New Zealand marine species
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Three New Zealand marine species, hoki (Macruronus novaezealandiae), kahawai (Arripis trutta) and trevally (Pseudocaranx dentex) were used to develop model fermented fish sausage. The formulation comprised fish mince, carbohydrate, minced garlic and salt in a mass ratio of 1 (fish): 0.15: 0.05: 0.03, respectively. The carbohydrate source was cooked rice or glucose. (Endogenous lactic acid bacteria (LAB) failed to ferment rice). Folate was also added to the mixture as a factor. The mixtures were extruded into 50 mL plastic syringes, where the needle end of the barrel had been excised by lathe. The lubricated barrel was overfilled to 60 mL, capped with a layer of ParafilmTM and aluminium foil, sealed tightly by rubber band and incubated at 30°C. Over time the piston was progressively advanced to yield samples for microbiological, physical, and chemical analysis. Over 96 hours an increase in the LAB count was observed with a concomitant decrease in pH. After fermentation was complete, the samples contained around 8.77 log cfu LAB g-1 with the pH range from 4.38 to 5.08. The microbiological and pH behaviour of each species varied between preparations. Hardness, adhesiveness, springiness and cohesiveness of the treatments increased with fermentation, except for hoki. The treatments showed different colour characteristics with fermentation. The light reflectance (L* values) of the trevally and kahawai treatments increased, while the a* (redness) and b* (yellowness) values decreased. Hoki exhibited smaller colour changes except for yellowness, which increased markedly. Proteolysis, measured colorimetrically by soluble peptide bonds, was greatest for trevally. Lipid oxidation, measured by the thiobarbituric acid method, was least for hoki, notably the species with the lowest fat content. Biogenic amines, which are a general quality indicator of fermented products, increased during fermentation. The trevally treatment generated the highest concentration of amines, but these values were lower than those reported for fermented fish sausage in Southeast Asia. Notably there were no important difference between folate treatments and those without folate. The results point to commercial opportunities and further research with New Zealand marine species, especially trevally. To improve the product quality and to show geographical exclusivity, further research could be done by using starter culture, and a New Zealand staple carbohydrate source such as kumara and potato, and spices and herbs which are commonly used in New Zealand, such as rosemary, thyme and sage or specific to New Zealand, such as horopito. In addition, sensory studies should also be performed before the products could be tested in the market.