Ultrasonic evaluation of the abductor hallucis muscle in hallux valgus: a cross-sectional observational study
Stewart, S; Ellis, R; Heath, M; Rome, K
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The aim of the study was to investigate the abductor hallucis muscle characteristics, defined as dorso-plantar (DP) thickness, medio-lateral (ML) width, and cross-sectional area (CSA) in relation to the severity of hallux valgus using musculoskeletal ultrasound. One hundred and two feet, mean (SD) age of 60.3 (20.54) years old, displaying varying severities of hallux valgus were stratified into four groups representing the four grades of the Manchester Scale (grade 0: no deformity, grade 1: mild deformity, grade 2: moderate deformity and grade 3: severe deformity).