Critical success factors in multichannel mobile marketing: a Delphi study
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This thesis reports a comprehensive examination of mobile marketing (m-Marketing) success factors and proposes a new m-Marketing success model. The model leverages a combination of DeLone & McLean’s Information Systems (IS) success model and the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM). Through a systematic literature review it is observed that m-Marketing evolution is associated with the emergence of mobile technology generations and that multichannel is the future trend of m-Marketing. A total of 23 m-Marketing success factors were identified from single-channel m-Marketing literature (with a variety of channels considered, including SMS, MMS, mobile web, and mobile TV). Given the emergent nature of multichannel m-Marketing, 31 m-Marketing experts, comprising 12 academic researchers and 19 industry professionals, were recruited for and variously participated in a 3-round Delphi study, with their numbers decreasing from round to round (to 22 and 19 participants, respectively). These experts contributed via an electronic data collection system to identify, score and categorize success factors for both single-channel and multichannel m-Marketing, with both quantitative and qualitative data gathered from the Delphi panel members. Six new m-Marketing success factors were identified from the Delphi study: campaign popularity, campaign promotion, interoperability, user power, clutter on mobile medium, and customization. By using descriptive statistics the researcher finds that brand trust, entertainment, location awareness & mobility, response time, frequency, and technical support are not critical for multichannel m-Marketing, whereas interoperability is very critical for multichannel m-Marketing but not critical for the single-channel approach. Acceptance and campaign promotion are found to be the most critical success factors for both single-channel and multichannel m-Marketing, while usability, profit/value, and interoperability are the most critical for the multichannel approach, and permission is the most critical factor for the single-channel approach. Non-parametric analysis techniques were used to investigate the existence and degree of difference in perceived factor importance ratings for single-channel and multichannel m-Marketing. The results show that profit/value, usability, response channel and interoperability are significantly more important in multichannel m-Marketing; in contrast, content, accuracy, response time and permission are less critical. The researcher also uses correlation analysis to examine related factor pairs, and factor analysis is used to categorize the set of 23 multichannel m-Marketing success factors with three- and six-component extractions. The Delphi panel also categorised the m-Marketing success factors into three groups (m-Marketing development, use and deployment, and impacts) based on a 3-phase model, providing insight as to the key factors at different stages of m-Marketing campaign development and use. The researcher compares the results from both factor analyses and participants’ inputs. Finally, the relevance of the various success factors to groups of m-Marketing stakeholders is identified and discussed in this thesis; the entire set of m-Marketing success factors is assigned by Delphi participants into two groups, based on their determination of whether these factors influence consumers’ satisfaction and/or net benefit to brand owners and service providers. The totality of study outcomes are represented in a multichannel m-Marketing success model. The relationship between multichannel m-Marketing success factors with both information system success theory and technology acceptance theory in m-Marketing are demonstrated.