Price, liquidity, volatility, and volume of cross-listed stocks
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This thesis examines the possible implications of international cross-listings for the wealth of shareholders, for stock liquidity and volatility, and for the distribution of trading volumes across both the domestic and foreign stock markets where the shares are traded. For the purpose of clarity, these three issues are analysed in three empirical chapters in the thesis. The first empirical issue examined in this thesis is the effects of international crosslistings on shareholders’ wealth. This is discussed in chapter 2. The chapter compares the gains in shareholders’ wealth that result from cross-listing in the American, British, and European stock exchanges and then evaluates their determinants by applying various theories on the wealth effects of cross-listing. Moreover, it evaluates how the wealth effect of crosslisting has changed over time reflecting the implications of the significant developments in capital markets that have taken place in recent years. In particular, the effects of the introduction of the Euro in Europe and the adoption of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act in the US are analysed. The findings suggest that, on average, cross-listing of stocks enhances shareholders’ wealth but the gains are dependent on the destination market. In addition, the regulatory and economic changes in the listing environment not only alter the wealth effects of cross-listings, but also affect the sources of value creation. Overall, this chapter provides in-depth insights into the motivations for, and the benefits of, cross-listings across different host markets in changing market conditions. The second empirical issue examined is the impact of cross-listing and multimarket trading on stock liquidity and volatility (chapter 3). Cross-listing leads to additional mandatory disclosure in order to comply with the requirements of the host market. Such requirements are expected to reduce information asymmetry among various market participants (corporate managers, stock dealers, and investors). An enhanced information environment, in turn, should increase stock liquidity and reduce stock return volatility. The findings of this study suggest that the stock liquidity and volatility improves after crosslisting on a foreign stock exchange. Moreover, this study distinguishes between cross-listing and cross-trading. The distinction is important because cross-trading, unlike cross-listing, does not require the disclosing of additional information. Although such a distinction means there is a variation in the information environment of cross-listed and cross-traded stocks, the results do not reveal any significant difference in the liquidity and volatility of the stocks that are cross-listed and cross-traded. This evidence suggests that the improvement in the liquidity and volatility of cross-listed/traded stocks comes primarily from the intensified competition among traders rather than from mandatory disclosure requirements. iii The final empirical issue investigated in this thesis (chapter 4) is the identification of the determinants of the distribution of equity trading volume from both stock exchange and firm specific perspectives. From a stock exchange perspective, exchange level analysis focuses on the stock exchange characteristics that determine the ability of a stock exchange to attract trading of foreign stocks. While from a firm perspective, firm level analysis focuses on firm specific characteristics that affect the distribution of foreign trading. The results show that a stock exchange’s ability to attract trading volumes of foreign equity is positively associated with a stock exchange’s organizational efficiency, market liquidity, and also the quality of investor protection and insider trading regulations. Analysis also reveals the superior ability of American stock exchanges to attract trading of European stocks. Moreover, there is strong evidence suggesting that regulated stock exchanges are more successful in attracting trading of foreign stocks than non-regulated markets, such as OTC and alternative markets and trading platforms. From a firm perspective, the proportion of trading on a foreign exchange is higher for smaller and riskier companies, and for companies that exhibit lower correlation of returns with market index returns in the host market. Also this proportion is higher when foreign trading takes place in the same currency as trading in the firm’s home market and increases with the duration of a listing. Finally, the study provides separate evidence on the expected levels of trading activity on various stock exchanges for a stock with particular characteristics. Overall, the findings of this thesis suggest that international cross-listing is beneficial for both firms and their shareholders but the findings also suggest that there are significant variations in the implications of cross-listings for different firms and from listing in different destination foreign markets. Finally, these implications are not static and respond to changes and reforms in listing and trading conditions.
KeywordsCross-listing; Shareholders' wealth; Cross-trading; Stock liquidity; Volatility; Trading volume
DateJune 30, 2011
Item TypeDoctoral Thesis