The trapezoidal method of steepest-descent and its application to adaptive filtering
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The method of steepest-descent is re-visited in continuous time. It is shown that the continuous time version is a vector differential equation the solution of which is found by integration. Since numerical integration has many forms, we show an alternative to the conventional solution by using a Trapezoidal integration solution. This in turn gives a slightly modified least-mean squares (LMS) algorithm.